Indirect speech and reported speech
indirect speech adalah kalimat tak langsung, yaitu kalimat yang dikatakan olehh orang lain (mungkin di tempat dan waktu yang berbeda) berdasarkan apa yang dikatakan langsung oleh penutur pertama. “Indirect Speech” disebut juga reported speech atau quoted speech.
1. Dalam indirect speech, “the past continuous tense” yang digunakan dengan when clause tidak
2. Dalam British English, penulisan tanda kutip menggunakan tanda kutip satu (‘ ‘), sedangkan
dalam American English, penulisannya menggunakan tanda kutip dua (“ “).
3. ‘should’ yang digunakan dengan I dan We (British) mempunyai arti akan bukan sebaliknya.
‘should’ berubah menjadi would dalam indirect speech.
a) He said, ‘ I should be happy.’ He said that he would be happy
b) He said, ‘I shall be happy.’ He said that he would be happy
4. Untuk suatu pernyataan yang benar secara universal. Kita dapat menggunakan the simple
present tense da dalam noun clause.
a) He said that the sun rises in the east.
b) He said that the sun rose in the east.
5. Jika introductory verb atau kata kerja dalam klausa utama dalam bentuk the simple present,
the present perfect atau the dimple future tense, maka dalam indirect speech tidak mengalami
a) He says that he is trying to work carefully.
b) She has said that she will never be late again.
Direct Speech Indirect Speech
1) He said, ‘I work Hard.’ He said (that) he worked hard
2) He said, ‘I am working hard.’ He said (that)he was working hard
3) He said, ‘I will work hard.’ He said (that) He would work hard
4) He said, ‘I was working hard.’ He said (that) he had been working hard
5) He said, ‘I worked hard.’ He said (that) he had worked hard
6) He said, ‘I have worked hard.’ He said (that) he had worked hard
7) He said, ‘I am going to work hard.’ He said (that) he was going to work hard
8) He said, ‘I can work hard.’ He said (that) he could work hard
9) He said, ‘I may work hard.’ He said (that) he might work hard
10) He said, ‘I might work hard.’ He said (that) he might work hard
11) He said, ‘I must work hard.’ He said (that) he must/had to work hard
12) He said, ‘I have to work hard.’ He said (that) he had to work hard
13) He said, ‘work hard.’ He told me to work hard
14) He said, ‘I should work hard.’ He said (that) he should work hard
15) He asked, ‘where are you?’ He asked me where I was
Perhatikan perubahan kata keterangan waktu dan kata kerja di dalam Indirect Speech
Direct Speech Indirect Speech :
Now (sekarang) Then, at that moment (pada waktu itu)
Today (hari ini) That thay (hari itu)
Yesterday (Kemarin) The day before, the previous day (sehari sebelumnya)
Last night (semalam) The night before, the previous night (semalam sebelumnya)
Last week (minggu lalu) the week before, the previous week (seminggu sebelumnya)
Two days ago (dua hari lalu) Two days before (dua hari sebelumnya)
A week ago (seminggu lalu) a week before, the previous week (seminggu sebelumnya)
A month ago (sebulan lalu) A month before, the previous month (sebulan sebelumnya)
A year ago (setahun lalu) a year before, the previous year (setahun sebelumnya)
Tomorrow (besok) the following day, the next day (hari berikutnya)
Next week (minggu depan) the following week (minggu berikutnya)
Next month (bulan depan) the following month (bulan berikutnya)
Next year (tahun depan) the following year (tahun berikutnya)
Next Monday (senin depan) the following Monday (senin berikutnya)
Here (disini) there (disana)
Over here (di sebelah sini) over there (disebelah sana)
This (ini) that (itu)
These (ini) those (itu)
1. He asked, ‘Did you stay here?’ He asked wheter (or not) I had stayed there
2. He said, ‘I was sick two days ago.’ He said (that) he had been sick two days before/earlier
3. He said, ‘I will work tomorrow.’ He said (that) he would the following/next day
4. He said, ‘I arrived yesterday.’ He said (that) he had arrived the day before/the previous day
5. He said, ‘I was there last week.’ He said (that) he had been there the week before
Reported speech secara tidak langsung melaporkan apa yang dikatakan orang lain. Contoh:
1.Jane said she was so happy today.
2.The president said he needed a vacation.
Reported speech menggunakan bentuk lampau dari direct speech. Jadi jika direct speech dalam bentuk present tense, maka reported speech dalam bentuk past tense. Contoh:
1.Direct Speech – I said, “She is in her office.”
2.Reported Speech – I said she was in her office.
Apabila direct speech dalam bentuk past tense, maka reported speech menggunakan bentuk past perfect.
1.Direct Speech – I said, “She was in her office at lunchtime.”
2.Reported Speech – I said she had been in her office at lunchtime. atau – I said she was in her office at lunchtime.
Dalam bahasa Inggris moderen, bentuk past perfect sering tidak diperlukan untuk reported speech bentuk lampau, kita cukup menggunakan past simple tense.
Berikut beberapa bentuk kata kerja umum dalam direct dan reported speech
1. Tenses / Reported Speech
2. Simple present: I said, “She is busy”. – I said she was busy.
3. Present continuous:I said, “I am working now”. – I said I was working now
4. Simple past:I said, “She was here this morning”. – I said she was here this morning. ATAU
I said she had been here this morning.
5. Past continuous: I said “She was studying all yesterday” – I said she was studying all
yesterday. ATAU I said she had been studying all yesterday
6. Present perfect: I said, “She has worked here for 5 years.” – I said she had worked here for
7. Past perfect: I said, “She had worked here for 5 years.” – I said she had worked here for 5
8. Future: I said, “She will work here from July.” – I said she would work here from July.
9. Future continuous: I said, “We’ll be living here for 6 months.” – I said we would be living
here for 6 months.
10.Can: I said, “She can play the piano well.” – I said she could play the piano well.
Reported speech sering diberikan sebagai bagian dari klausa-that, khususnya dalam bahasa tertulis dan bahasa yang lebih formal. Contoh:
*He said that he would arrive at 10.00.
*He said he would arrive at 10.00.
Kedua kalimat ini bermakna sama, dan that bisa dihilangkan tanpa ada perubahan makna.